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Assessment Results




© 2013 Benjamin Tapley / ZSL (1 of 1 )

AmphibiaWeb species account




IUCN Red List assessment


Conservation Needs Assessment

Sallywalkerana phrynoderma ,   Warty-skinned Leaping Frog
Assessed for:  India   on: 22 May 2017   by: Indian Assessments Group  
Assessment Status: Completed  
Order:   Anura     Family:   Ranixalidae

IUCN Global Red List:   Critically Endangered (CR)   
IUCN National Red List:   (not assessed)   
Distribution:     India  
Evolutionary Distinctiveness score:    
Recommended Conservation Actions:   In Situ Conservation  , In Situ Research  , Ex Situ Research  , Conservation Education   
Additional Comments:   Assessed by Arun Kanagavel, Ashish Thomas, Benjamin Tapley, Lilly Eluvathingal, Rajkumar KP, Sandeep Das and Robin Panjikar 

Question #Short NameQuestion TextResponseComments
1 Extinction risk Current IUCN Red List category. [Data obtained from the IUCN Red List.] Critically Endangered (CR) The species extent of occurrence without correcting it for the actual habitat it actually occurs in is 26.3 sq. km. Due to this extremely restricted range, it qualifies for continuing to be assessed as Critically Endangered
2 Possibly extinct Is there a strong possibility that this species might be extinct in the wild? No
3 Phylogenetic significance The taxon’s Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED) score, as generated by the ZSL EDGE program. (These data are added by AArk staff, and are not editable by Assessors). ED value < 20
4 Protected habitat Is a population of at least 50% of the individuals of the taxon included within a reliably protected area or areas? Yes Highly likely. The species is reported from Anamalai Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Tiger Reserve and Eravikulam National Park
5 Habitat for reintroduction Does enough suitable habitat exist, either within or outside of currently protected areas that is suitable for reintroduction or translocation? Unknown
6 Previous reintroductions Have reintroduction or translocation attempts been made in the past for this species? No
7 Threat mitigation Are the threats facing the taxon, including any new and emerging threats not considered in the IUCN Red List, potentially reversible? Threats are reversible in time frame At four locations where the species was found, it faced threats from potential risk of pesticide runoff into its habitat (n = 4) and human disturbance (n = 3), firewood collection and livestock grazing (n = 2), roads (n = 1), tourism (n = 1) and garbage disposal (n = 1).
8 Over-collection from the wild Is the taxon suffering from unsustainable collection within its natural range, either for food, for the pet trade or for any other reason, which threatens the species’ continued persistence in the wild? No
9 Population recovery Is the known population of this species in the wild large enough to recover naturally, without ex situ intervention if threats are mitigated? Unknown Within the restricted range it occupies, the species is uncommon and its the sister species, Walkerana leptodactyla that occurs in greater numbers whose distribution is also widespread.
10 Biological distinctiveness Does the taxon exhibit, for example, a distinctive reproductive mode, behaviour, aspect of morphology or physiology, within the Class Amphibia? No aspect of biology known to be exceptional
11 Cultural/socio-economic importance Does the taxon have a special human cultural value (e.g. as a national or regional symbol, in a historic context, featuring in traditional stories) or economic value (e.g. food, traditional medicine, tourism) within its natural range or in a wider global context? No The species does not have a distinct vernacular name. Its vernacular name is similar to that of toads and other frogs of the Ranidae family. It also has a low potential as a flagship species for tourists and local communities.
12 Scientific importance Is the species vital to current or planned research other than species-specific ecology/biology/conservation? (e.g. human medicine, climate change, environmental pollutants and conservation science), within the Class Amphibia? No research dependent on this species
13 Ex situ research Does conserving this species (or closely related species) in situ depend upon research that can be most easily carried out ex situ? Yes The reproduction process including the breeding season in the species is not yet known due to which key breeding habitats that the species would require is not yet understood. Species observation in the wild has not yet provided any information regarding this. Therefore, observing the species in an ex situ environment could lead to a better understanding in this aspect that would allow for formulating appropriate conservation strategy.
14 Husbandry analog Do the biological and ecological attributes of this species make it suitable for developing husbandry regimes for more threatened related species? i.e. could this species be used in captivity to help to develop husbandry and breeding protocols which could be used for a similar, but more endangered species at a later stage? No
15 Captive breeding Has this species been successfully maintained and bred in captivity? Not held in captivity to date
16 Educational potential Is the species especially diurnal/active/colourful and therefore suited to be an educational ambassador for conservation of this group of species? Yes The species can be detected during the day within its specific habitat and can be distinguished relatively easily than its sister species. It has also been found to be a suitable species that can be easily recognized by Forest Department officials and could be a part of official long-term species monitoring programs.
17 Mandate Is there an existing conservation mandate recommending the ex situ conservation of this taxon? Yes There is an existing mandate. It has been identified by the Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA) as a target species for conservation breeding.
18 Range State approval Would a proposed ex situ initiative for this species be supported (and approved) by the range State (either within the range State or out-of-country ex situ)? Yes There is a greater chance that the state of Kerala would support an ex situ initiative for the species within its physical boundaries and neither in any other state in India or outside the country.
19 Founder specimens Are sufficient animals of the taxon available or potentially available (from wild or captive sources) to initiate the specified ex situ program? Yes
20 Taxonomic status Has a complete taxonomic analysis of the species in the wild been carried out, to fully understand the functional unit you wish to conserve (i.e. have species limits been determined)? Yes

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